2 / 1999

India * "Punjab" region leather shoe with turned-up toe

In the year 1001 A.D., the "Punjab" region was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazna and the islamic religion became established in the northern part of India. As a result the original Bhuddist and Hindu cultures became strongly influenced by the Islamic domination. Fashion followed the style of clothing and footwear in Persia and Afghanistan. The toes of shoes became turned-up like the "Poulaines" or "Crakows" of the Gothic age in Europe. The uppers were made of colourful felt or leather, stitched or embroidered with gold and silver threads. The back of the shoe was mostly folded in for easier removal when entering a mosque. The above shoe is called "Khusa" and represents a typical example of this centuries-old fashion.

Research and text by : W.A.H.M. Habraken-Oosterhout-Holland
Illustration by : Colin Ball - Waalwijk - Holland